Magento call static block in phtml file

First you need to create a static block in admin section.

Go to Admin >> CMS >> Static Blocks  . After create static block use identifier block name

<?php echo $this->getLayout()->createBlock('cms/block')->setBlockId('your_identifier_block_name')->toHTML(); ?>

If you want to call static block through XML file.

<reference name="right">  
<block type="cms/block" name="block_name" as="block_name">
  <action method="setBlockId"><block_id>you're_identifier_block_name</block_id>

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